View the pages below for a brief description of each study parameter - additional information on each parameter is listed below the descriptions. If you do not find your answer in the information provided, please contact us.
Arsenic is a naturally occurring element found in the earth's crust. It is also a by-product of copper smelting, mining, coal burning, and other industrial processes, along with agricultural processes.
Chloride occurs naturally as a component of salts. Chloride salts are widely used in snow and ice control and in the production of industrial chemicals, including fertilizers. Natural resource extraction can also produce areas with elevated levels of chloride.
Gross Alpha Radiation
Alpha particles are heavy, high-energy particles emitted from mildly radioactive elements. They do not have the energy to breach the outer layer of skin, however once inside the body they can be very harmful.
Gross Beta Radiation
Beta particles are small, high-energy particles emitted from mildly radioactive elements. They are less damaging than alpha particles, but some are capable of breaching skin. Like alpha particles they are most harmful once inside the body.
Iron is a non-hazardous element that is chemically similar to manganese and can cause similar problems. Iron is more common than manganese and both are considered 'nuisance chemicals' by the EPA.
Manganese is a non-hazardous element that is chemically similar to iron and can cause similar problems.
Nitrogen is essential for all living things and exists in the environment in varying forms throughout the nitrogen cycle. Nitrate is most harmful in infants under 6 months of age.
Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal that emits alpha particles as it decays. This can lead to higher concentrations of alpha particles in water supplies.
Selenium is a mineral found in natural deposits. It is used in pharmaceutical and industrial processes, as well as in pesticides, and as an additive for livestock feed.
Specific conductivity measures water's ability to pass an electrical current and relates directly to the concentration of ions in the water.
Sulfate is considered a secondary water contaminant or 'nuisance chemical' by the EPA and at the concentrations found in domestic water supplies it does not usually pose a health risk.
Total Dissolved Solids
Total Dissolved Solids is the sum of all ion particles that are smaller than 2 microns. They are considered a 'nuisance chemical' by the EPA and aren't harmful on their own.
Uranium is found naturally in nearly all soil, rock, and water.